The pelagic fish community of the Dumont d’Urville Sea (East Antarctica) was investigated during the 2008 austral summer using IYGPT (International Young Gadoid Pelagic Trawl) samples taken in different depth layers from the surface to 1000 metres. The aim of this paper is to describe the mesopelagic fish community and its size distribution. The family Myctophidae dominated the mesopelagic ichthyofauna, while bathylagids were abundant in deeper hauls. Bathylagids, Cyclothone spp, Gymnoscopelus opisthopterus, Electrona antarctica, Protomyctophum bolini, and Krefftichthys anderssoni were the most abundant taxa in the samples and showed size stratification with depth. Community and size structuring appear to be influenced by the hydrology and by the proximity of the continental margin, as well as a relationship to the circulation of the Modified Circumpolar Deep Water.